Muslim Crusades Against Christians The fact that the originating cause of the Crusades was Muslim aggression against Christians can hardly be overstated. The Christian Crusades were attempts to retake lands stolen by the Muslim invaders centuries earlier. To truly understand what precipitated the Christian Crusades, one must understand the rise and progress of Islam. After being forced to flee from Mecca in because of his beliefs, Muhammad spent the next ten years in conflict with Jews, Christians, and his fellow Arabs.
Alta California mission planning, structure and culture[ edit ] Coastal mission chain, planning and overview[ edit ] Prior togrants of mission lands were made directly by the Spanish Crown.
But, given the remote locations and the inherent difficulties in communicating with the territorial governments, power was transferred to the viceroys of New Spain to grant lands and establish missions in North America.
Plans to build a twenty-second mission in Santa Rosa in were canceled.
In September ,the Rev. The Santa Ysabel Asistencia had been founded in as a "mother" mission, however, the plan's expanding beyond never came to fruition. This mission is architecturally distinctive because of the strong Moorish lines exhibited.
Asistencias "satellite" or "sub" missions, sometimes referred to as "contributing chapels" were small-scale missions that regularly conducted Mass on days of obligation but lacked a resident priest;  as with the missions, these settlements were typically established in areas with high concentrations of potential native converts.
To sustain a mission, the padres required converted Native Americanscalled neophytes, to cultivate crops and tend livestock in the volume needed to support a fair-sized establishment. The scarcity of imported materials, together with a lack of skilled laborers, compelled the missionaries to employ simple building materials and methods in the construction of mission structures.
Although the missions were considered temporary ventures by the Spanish hierarchythe development of an individual settlement was not simply a matter of "priestly whim. Once empowered to erect a mission in a given area, the men assigned to it chose a specific site that featured a good water supply, plenty of wood for fires and building materials, and ample fields for grazing herds and raising crops.
It was these simple huts that ultimately gave The ugly truth behind the expeditions of christopher columbus to the stone and adobe buildings that exist to the present.
The first priority when beginning a settlement was the location and construction of the church iglesia. The majority of mission sanctuaries were oriented on a roughly east-west axis to take the best advantage of the sun's position for interior illumination ; the exact alignment depended on the geographic features of the particular site.
Once the spot for the church had been selected, its position was marked and the remainder of the mission complex was laid out. The workshopskitchensliving quarters, storerooms, and other ancillary chambers were usually grouped in the form of a quadrangleinside which religious celebrations and other festive events often took place.
Some fanciful accounts regarding the construction of the missions claimed that underground tunnels were incorporated in the design, to be used as a means of emergency egress in the event of attack; however, no historical evidence written or physical has ever been uncovered to support these assertions.
It was a doctrine established inwhich based the Spanish state's right over the land and persons of the Indies on the Papal charge to evangelize them.
It was employed wherever the indigenous populations were not already concentrated in native pueblos. Indians were congregated around the mission proper through forced resettlement, in which the Spanish "reduced" them from what they perceived to be a free "undisciplined'" state with the ambition of converting them into "civilized" members of colonial society.
A total of Friars Minormostly Spaniards by birth, were ordained as priests and served in California between and Sixty-seven missionaries died at their posts two as martyrs: Once a Native American " gentile " was baptized, they were labeled a neophyteor new believer.
This happened only after a brief period during which the initiates were instructed in the most basic aspects of the Catholic faith. But, while many natives were lured to join the missions out of curiosity and sincere desire to participate and engage in trade, many found themselves trapped once they were baptized.
To the padres, a baptized Indian person was no longer free to move about the country, but had to labor and worship at the mission under the strict observance of the priests and overseers, who herded them to daily masses and labors. If an Indian did not report for their duties for a period of a few days, they were searched for, and if it was discovered that they had left without permission, they were considered runaways.
Large-scale military expeditions were organized to round up the escaped neophytes. Sometimes, the Franciscans allowed neophytes to escape the missions, or they would allow them to visit their home village.
However, the Franciscans would only allow this so that they could secretly follow the neophytes. Upon arriving to the village and capturing the runaways, they would take back Indians to the missions, sometimes as many as to Indians. On the road they did the same with those of the lodge at San Jose.
On arriving home the men were instructed to throw their bows and arrows at the feet of the priest, and make due submission.
The infants were then baptized, as were also all children under eight years of age; the former were left with their mothers, but the latter kept apart from all communication with their parents. The consequence was, first, the women consented to the rite and received it, for the love they bore their children; and finally the males gave way for the purpose of enjoying once more the society of wife and family.
Marriage was then performed, and so this contaminated race, in their own sight and that of their kindred, became followers of Christ. Two epidemics of measlesone in and the other incaused many deaths.
The mortality rates were so high that the missions were constantly dependent upon new conversions. The foremost dancer is ornamented all over with down feathers, which gives him a monkey-like appearance; the hindermost has had the whimsical idea of painting his body to imitate the uniform of a Spanish soldier, with his boots, stockings, breeches, and upper garments.
Women only left the convent after they had been "won" by an Indian suitor and were deemed ready for marriage. Following Spanish custom, courtship took place on either side of a barred window.The ruthlessness that academic researchers use to critique others research far exceeds the criticism Scott is receiving, as it should.
For the most part the criticism of researchers is accepted by those being criticized as part of the scientific process to move closer to the truth. The vikings spent a good portion of that time sending expeditions down south to try to settle what they called Vineland -- which historians now believe was the East Coast of North America.
Some place the vikings as far south as modern day North Carolina. The Ugly Truth Behind the Expeditions of Christopher Columbus ( words, 6 pages) Critique on ColumbusThe Western Hemisphere cannot get enough of Christopher Columbus. In his name, there have been 14 cities, 5 counties, and a national holiday.
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy , he was a map maker and a sailor in his forties, navigator and colonizer, and Genoese explorer.
Columbus had many motivations and completed many voyages across the . The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Life of Christopher Columbus from his own Letters and Journals, by Edward Everett Hale This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
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