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He is generally considered a manifestation of the god Vishnu or his avatar, Vithoba is often depicted as a dark young boy, standing arms akimbo on a brick, sometimes accompanied by his main consort Rakhumai.
Vithoba is the focus of the monotheistic, non-Brahamanical Varkari faith of Maharashtra, Vitthal Temple, Pandharpur is his main temple. Vithoba legends revolve around his devotee Pundalik, who is credited with bringing the deity to Pandharpur, the Varkari poet-saints are known for their unique genre of devotional lyric, the abhang, dedicated to Vithoba and composed in Marathi.
Other devotional literature dedicated to Vithoba includes the Kannada hymns of the Haridasa, the most important festivals of Vithoba are held on Shayani Ekadashi in the month of Ashadha, and Prabodhini Ekadashi in the month of Kartik.
The historiography of Vithoba and his cult is an area of continuing debate, though the origins of both his cult and his main temple are likewise debated, there is clear evidence that they already existed by the 13th century.
Vithoba is known by names, including, Vitthala, Panduranga, Pandharinath, Hari. Thus, Vitthala would mean one standing on a brick, william Crooke, orientalist, supported this explanation. The prescribed iconography of Vithoba stipulates that he be shown standing arms-akimbo upon a brick, however, the Varkari poet-saint Tukaram proposed a different etymology—that Vitthala is composed of the words vittha and la, thus meaning one who accepts innocent people who are devoid of knowledge.
Historian Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar offers yet another possibility—that Vitthu is a Kannada corruption of the name Vishnu adopted in Marathi, the suffixes -la and -ba were appended for reverence, producing the names Vitthala and Vithoba.
The deity was named as Vitthala, a derivative of Bittidev. The additional honorific suffix -ji may be added, giving the name Vitthalnathji and this name is generally used in the Pushtimarg sect. Panduranga, also spelt as Pandurang and Pandaranga, is another epithet for Vithoba.
The Jain author-saint Hemachandra notes it is used as an epithet for the god Rudra-Shiva. Even though Vithoba is depicted with dark complexion, he is called a white god, Bhandarkar explains this paradox, proposing that Panduranga may be an epithet for the form of Shiva worshipped in Pandharpur, and whose temple still stands 2.
Sant Tukaram is revered as a great Indian film and it was the first Indian film to receive international recognition. It was adjudged one of the three best films of the world at the Venice Film Festival and was showcased in other film festivals. It was a success and broke the box office records by being the first Indian film to run in a single theatre for more than a year.
It was Prabhats and Pagniss most famous film and became the archetype for devotional film, set in 17th century Dehu, Maharashtra, Tukaram - a farmer and grocer - loses interest in the material world after losing his first wife and child in a famine.
He neglects his duties to his second wife Jijai and their two children. The Brahmin Salomalo is jealous of the following and popularity of the shudra saint. He claims that Tukaram stole his verses, and questions a shudras right to examine the Hindu scriptures, Vedas, Pandit Rameshwar Shastri, a learned Brahmin scholar and religious authority, is invited by Salomalo to examine his claims, which he backs by fabricating evidence.
Shastri orders that Tukaram immerse his works into the river and never discuss religion in public, Tukaram complies and sits on a fast on the river bank with his family for thirteen days, when God returns him his works. Shastri falls seriously sick, which he interprets as divine retribution, Salomalo then approaches the reigning king Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire.
When Shivaji tests Tukaram by offering material gifts, the saint refuses and in turn, Salomalo then informs the Mughals, Shivajis enemies that the king was in town, but God protects Shivaji at behest of Tukaram, when the Mughals come to Dehu.
When Tukarams work is done on earth, God comes to him to heaven. He wrote religious poetry in Marathi, the language of Maharashtra.
|Existing Institute Sign In||Starting from the life of Jnaneshwarwhose treatise on the Bhagavad Gita sprang new life into the religious life of the land, Maharashtra was blessed with a stream of great religious figures, who sustained the faith of the people in the religion of the land through many hardships. The religious renaissance eventually transformed the society completely, culminating in Independence from Islamic rule for most of India.|
It touched the heart strings of the people, particularly those who were downtrodden or oppressed by the Brahminical hegemony. His preaching, rendered in rhythmic poetry, thus had great mass appeal and was considered the beginning of a movement in the country.
Pagnis was a kirtankar, a minstrel who sang devotional songs, before being cast by V. Shantaram of the producer company Prabhat as Tukaram, Pagnis was a specialist actor in donning female roles in plays by his theatre group Swadesh Hitinchal Mandali 3.
The film festival has taken place in late August or early September on the island of the Lido, Venice. Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi, since its inception the Venice Film Festival has grown into one of the most prestigious film festivals in the world.
The 74th Venice International Film Festival is scheduled to be held from 30 August to 9 Septemberthe first edition of the Venice Film Festival was carried out from the 6 to the 21 of August in The festival began with an idea of the president of the Venice Biennale Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata and Luciano De Feo, with good reason, the festival was considered the first international event of its type, receiving strong support from authorities.SANT EKNATH is one of the great rishis of Maharshtra.
Starting from the life of Jnaneshwar (), whose treatise on the Bhagavad Gita sprang new life into the religious life of the land, Maharashtra was blessed with a stream of great religious figures, who sustained the faith of the people in the religion of the land through many hardships.
Marathi abhangas translated into English. likes. On this page, I am going to post my translation of some famous Marathi abhangas (short spiritual. Language Frequency Contact Person Company Address Phone Email Membership # Aaj Samaj New Delhi Aajkaal Publishers Pvt.
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