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In addition to legislation are other ways to combat illegal downloading — yet these too are problematic. One approach gaining traction involves the surveillance of Internet activity by ISPs, or another independent body. However, this approach is problematic on six counts — the first is the cost, which seems out of parity with harm.
BT Broadband in the U. As such, the option does not represent a sound investment, particularly for consumers who are likely to pay for it Marshall, b.
The second reason is the likelihood of driving illegal downloading further underground Lasica, ; Roach, In light of current and emerging technologies, the IT—savvy will probably venture towards highly encrypted networks and identity obscuration steps that sidestep blanket Illegal downloading contents.
The fourth reason pertains to civil liberties. There is concern about reduced privacy for consumers. The swing towards private litigation that seeks, from the outset, settlement outcomes at amounts lower than it costs to hire legal representation Anderson, suggests a lessened harm minimisation approach than previously instituted.
The recent tightening of copyright infringement legislation combined with a settlement oriented new ethic of targeting illegal downloaders suggests a greater potential for a loss of civil liberties through an absence of appeal mechanisms.
In addition law suits from the U. The fifth reason is that of practicality.
It is largely difficult to ban Internet access in entire households, when only one person is suspected of copyright infringement.
Finally, whether surveillance is the responsibility of ISPs is also contested. Although legal in Sweden, this is viewed critically by some industry lobby groups given their belief that ISPs are required to do more than merely provide the conduit through which Internet activity flows.
Despite the challenges that surround ISP surveillance, it continues to be of interest to some government and industry groups; consider Australia Gilmore and Armstrong, Ina lobby group for the television and film industries pursued legal action against iiNet for not acting on notifications of copyright breaches Foo and Bingemann, The ISP maintained that this was not its role; but rather, copyright holders are responsible for acting on these breaches Miller, In a landmark decision, Justice Cowdroy agreed, ruling that ISPs are not responsible for customer actions, even when ISPs are aware of illegal activity and do not take preventative steps Federal Court of Australia, And this has considerable implications.
Santangelo aptly demonstrates this. Patricia Santangelo, a mother of five, resolved to challenge the copyright infringement notice issued by several record companies for alleged file sharing. Heard before the U.
The focus then shifted to two of her children and a relatively small financial agreement was reached Delahunty, This case indicates that those targeted by organisations like the RIAA are not necessarily the largest downloaders, the most active commercial pirates, or the most politically motivated.
Tens of millions of Americans continue to use P2P file sharing software and other new technologies to share music, yet the RIAA has randomly singled out only a few for retribution through lawsuits.
Unfortunately, many of the people in this group cannot afford either to settle or to defend themselves. Given legal experiences to date — such as that against Santangelo Delahunty,these sanctions are not likely to control the largest downloaders, but rather, they will target vulnerable populations, like young people and those responsible for Internet connectivity like parents and grandparents.
While seemingly judicious, these moderated approaches will not necessarily rescue accidental criminals. It is thus important that an alternative approach is considered.
Attribution theory Developed by social psychologists Heider, ; Jones and Gerard, ; Kelley, ; Ross and Nisbett,attribution theory helps to explain the way individuals develop causal deductions — that is, how they rationalise or make sense of an event or a behaviour Drozdenko and Jensen, According to the theory, individuals ascribe cause in two ways.
The first suggests they award primacy to external or contextual factors that are largely uncontrollable; the second suggests they turn to internal or dispositional factors, which can be controlled — however, combinations of external and internal factors are also recognised Kelley, ; ; ; Weiner, ; When rationalising the behaviour of another, the development of attributions is influenced by many factors.
Although interconnected, for ease of clarity, these might be described as personal factors and interpersonal factors. The former include attribution style Abramson, et al.Contents Abstract 2 Introduction 2 My reasons for software piracy and downloading copyrighted material.
2 My reasons against software piracy and downloading copyrighted material. 3 Conclusion 4 Abstract Even though we know that software piracy is illegal, we are aware many people still download and access this copyrighted material for their.
Arturo Quirantes • February 2, AM. That depends on what "illegal downloading is" In several European countries, law allows for the so-called "private copy", which is the one you make for yourself on a non-for-profit basis. You must be at 18 years old to enter.
Please click below to verify your age. This study investigates the role of ‘relevant others’ in influencing illegal downloading behaviour of pop music within the church community context.
Specifically, it examines how personal factors (“spirituality”, “moral judgement”, and “attitude towards the church”) and social. The increased acceptance of illegally downloading media has affected the bottom line of the movie and music industry over the past decade, and that isn't good news for torrent fans.
Oct 22, · WASHINGTON, UNITED STATES: Demonstrators parade with posters in front of the US Supreme Court in Washington, DC 29 March, as the .