Wennerberg, Marcello Dudovich, I. Foreign Advertising from through This chapter also traces the development of the postcard, and includes the pioneer card, the undivided back card, the divided back card, the white border card, offset color lithography, the chrome. All areas of commerce are covered including breweriana, pharmaceuticals, patent medicines and tonics, nursing and hospital services, transportation air, land and seahousehold appliances, clothing, birth announcements, etc.
In Spanish, the preposition particle de "of" is used as a conjunction in two surname spelling styles, and to disambiguate a surname. Unlike in French, Spanish orthography does not require a contraction when a vowel begins the surname, but de el "of the" becomes del, e. Bearing the de particle does not necessarily denote a noble family, especially in Castile and Alavathe de usually applied to the place-name town or village from which the person and his or her ancestors originated; however, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the usage of de spread as a way of denoting the bearer's noble heritage to avoid the misperception that he or she is either a Jew or a Moor.
In that time, many people, regardless of their true origins, used the particle, e. Miguel de CervantesLope de Vegaetc. During the eighteenth century, the Spanish nobility fully embraced the French custom of using de as a nobility identifier, however, commoners also bore the de particle, which made the de usages unclear; thus, nobility was emphasised with the surname's lineage.
In Hispanic America, this spelling convention was common to clergymen e. In the Philippinesy and its associated usages are retained only in formal state documents such as police records, but is otherwise dropped in favour of a more American-influenced naming order.
Denotations[ edit ] To communicate a person's social identitySpanish naming customs provide orthographic means, such as suffix-letter abbreviations, surname spellings, and place names, which denote and connote the person's place in society.
Identity and descent[ edit ] h. A man named like his father, might append the lower-case suffix h. For more on the -z surnames in Spanish see Influences on the Spanish language. Because most foundlings were reared in church orphanages, they were often given the surnames Iglesia or Iglesias church[es] and Cruz cross.
Blanco connoting "blank" here, rather than the more usual "white" was another option. A toponymical first surname might be followed as second surname by Iglesia or Cruz. Foreign citizens[ edit ] In Spain, legal and illegal foreign immigrants retain use of their cultural naming customs,  yet upon becoming Spanish citizensthey are legally obliged to assume Spanish-style names a name and two surnames.
Formally, Spanish naming customs conflate his name "George" and his middle-name "Albert" to the composite name "George Albert", and his sole surname, "Duran", is duplicated as his paternal and maternal surnames.
Flamenco artists[ edit ] Historically, flamenco artists seldom used their proper names. According to the flamenco guitarist Juan Serranothis was because flamenco was considered disreputable and they did not want to embarrass their families: We have to start with the history of the gypsies in Spain.
They gained a bad reputation because of the minor crimes they had to commit to survive. They did not have any kind of jobs, they had to do something to live, and of course this created hostility.
And Flamenco was the music of the Gypsies, so many high society people did not accept it — they said Flamenco was in the hands of criminals, bandits, et cetera. And the girls, that maybe liked dancing or singing, their parents said, "Oh no, you want to be a prostitute!
Spanish hypocoristics and nicknames[ edit ] Many Spanish names can be shortened into hypocoristicaffectionate " child-talk " forms using a diminutive suffix, especially -ito and -cito masculine and -ita and -cita feminine.
Sometimes longer than the person's name, a nickname is usually derived via linguistic rules. Nacho Duato born Juan Ignacio Duato. The common English practice of using a nickname in the press or media, or even on business cards such as Bill Gates instead of William Gatesis not accepted in Spanish, being considered excessively colloquial.
The usages vary by country and region; these are some usual names and their nicknames:How to write a Spanish letter.
Spanish letter types. only write on one side of a sheet of paper and always type the letter - the only pen ink on the page should be the signature.
This is mainly a concern for those who would really like to improve their letter-writing skills in Spanish and become autonomous in the art.
For the non-native.
Writing question: A postcard. Read this typical exam question and think about how you would answer it. You can write your answer on paper. Write a postcard to a friend and include the following.
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Draw Your Own Postcard using a free printable postcard template I didn’t write that list of who sent us cards last year so I wouldn’t be caught out this year, and the thought of having to go to the post office for stamps is making my head hurt.
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