His siblings Arnaldo and Edvige followed.
This is the only complete official translation we know of on the web, copied directly from an official Fascist government publication ofFascism Doctrine and Institutions, by Benito Mussolini. This translation includes all the footnotes from the original.
Subtitles in article have been put in by us to make the article more readable.
The publication of this material is in no way whatsoever an endorsement of these viewpoints by the World Future Fund, unless explicitly stated by us. As our web site makes very clear, we are totally opposed to ideas such as racism and religious intolerance.
However, in order to combat such evils, it is necessary to understand them by means of the study of key documentary material. For a more detailed statement of our publications standards click here. Like all sound political conceptions, Fascism is action and it is thought; action in which doctrine is immanent, and doctrine arising from a given system of historical forces in which it is inserted, and working on them from within 1.
It has therefore a form correlated to contingencies of time and space; but it has also an ideal content which makes it an expression of truth in the higher region of the history of thought 2. There is no way of exercising a spiritual influence in the world as a human will dominating the will of others, unless one has a conception both of the transient and the specific reality on which that action is to be exercised, and of the permanent and universal reality in which the transient dwells and has its being.
To know men one must know man; and to know man one must be acquainted with reality and its laws. There can be no conception of the State which is not fundamentally a conception of life: A spiritual attitude 3.
Fascism sees in the world not only those superficial, material aspects in which man appears as an individual, standing by himself, self-centered, subject to natural law, which instinctively urges him toward a life of selfish momentary pleasure; it sees not only the individual but the nation and the country; individuals and generations bound together by a moral law, with common traditions and a mission which suppressing the instinct for life closed in a brief circle of pleasure, builds up a higher life, founded on duty, a life free from the limitations of time and space, in which the individual, by self-sacrifice, the renunciation of self-interest, by death itself, can achieve that purely spiritual existence in which his value as a man consists.
The conception is therefore a spiritual one, arising from the general reaction of the century against the materialistic positivism of the XIXth century.
Anti-positivistic but positive; neither skeptical nor agnostic; neither pessimistic nor supinely optimistic as are, generally speaking, the doctrines all negative which place the center of life outside man; whereas, by the exercise of his free will, man can and must create his own world. Fascism wants man to be active and to engage in action with all his energies; it wants him to be manfully aware of the difficulties besetting him and ready to face them.
It conceives of life as a struggle in which it behooves a man to win for himself a really worthy place, first of all by fitting himself physically, morally, intellectually to become the implement required for winning it.
As for the individual, so for the nation, and so for mankind 4. Hence the high value of culture in all its forms artistic, religious, scientific 5 and the outstanding importance of education. Hence also the essential value of work, by which man subjugates nature and creates the human world economic, political, ethical, and intellectual.
This positive conception of life is obviously an ethical one.
It invests the whole field of reality as well as the human activities which master it. No action is exempt from moral judgment; no activity can be despoiled of the value which a moral purpose confers on all things. Therefore life, as conceived of by the Fascist, is serious, austere, and religious; all its manifestations are poised in a world sustained by moral forces and subject to spiritual responsibilities.
The Fascist conception of life is a religious one 7in which man is viewed in his immanent relation to a higher law, endowed with an objective will transcending the individual and raising him to conscious membership of a spiritual society.
Hence the great value of tradition in records, in language, in customs, in the rules of social life 8. Outside history man is a nonentity. It does not believe in the possibility of "happiness" on earth as conceived by the economistic literature of the XVIIIth century, and it therefore rejects the theological notion that at some future time the human family will secure a final settlement of all its difficulties.
This notion runs counter to experience which teaches that life is in continual flux and in process of evolution.
In politics Fascism aims at realism; in practice it desires to deal only with those problems which are the spontaneous product of historic conditions and which find or suggest their own solutions 9.
Only by entering in to the process of reality and taking possession of the forces at work within it, can man act on man and on nature Anti-individualistic, the Fascist conception of life stresses the importance of the State and accepts the individual only in so far as his interests coincide with those of the State, which stands for the conscience and the universal, will of man as a historic entity It is opposed to classical liberalism which arose as a reaction to absolutism and exhausted its historical function when the State became the expression of the conscience and will of the people.
Liberalism denied the State in the name of the individual; Fascism reasserts the rights of the State as expressing the real essence of the individual And if liberty is to he the attribute of living men and not of abstract dummies invented by individualistic liberalism, then Fascism stands for liberty, and for the only liberty worth having, the liberty of the State and of the individual within the State The Fascist conception of the State is all embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value.
Thus understood, Fascism, is totalitarian, and the Fascist State - a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values - interprets, develops, and potentates the whole life of a people No individuals or groups political parties, cultural associations, economic unions, social classes outside the State Fascism is therefore opposed to Socialism to which unity within the State which amalgamates classes into a single economic and ethical reality is unknown, and which sees in history nothing but the class struggle.
Fascism is likewise opposed to trade unionism as a class weapon. But when brought within the orbit of the State, Fascism recognizes the real needs which gave rise to socialism and trade unionism, giving them due weight in the guild or corporative system in which divergent interests are coordinated and harmonized in the unity of the State Benito Mussolini was paid £ a week by MI5 to keep Italy in the first world war.
Photograph: Bettmann/Corbis History remembers Benito Mussolini as a founder member of the original Axis of Evil. Fascism definition, a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.
See more. Mussolini and the Rise of Fascism. Fascism arose in Europe after World War I when many people yearned for national unity and strong leadership. In Italy, Benito Mussolini used his charisma to establish a powerful fascist state.
Benito Mussolini coined the term “fascism” in .
Fascism - Neofascism: Although fascism was largely discredited in Europe at the end of World War II, fascist-inspired movements were founded in several European countries beginning in the late s. Similar groups were created outside Europe as well, primarily in Latin America, the Middle East, and South Africa.
Like their fascist predecessors, . Benito Mussolini: Benito Mussolini, Italian prime minister (–43) and the first of 20th-century Europe’s fascist dictators.
This week marks the 73rd anniversary of the execution of Benito Mussolini, yet questions still remain about the events surrounding fascist leader’s death and the identity of his killer. Official.